The project will analyse the gyroscope and accelerometer sensors. They make up the inputs of the flight control system Hexarotor. As seen in the following model, the control system consists of two basic cycles controlling the position and angles. The first loop is the position controller. Compares target positions and instant positions and calculates the required pitch and yaw angle. The second cycle controls the attitude. Comparing the pitch, yaw angle and desired deviation angle from the position control to the instantaneous angles, creates the necessary control outputs.
Gyroscopes are devices that measure or maintain rotational motion for Hexarotor Gyroscope. The units of angular velocity are measured in degrees per second (°/s) or revolutions per second (RPS). Angular velocity is simply a measurement of speed of rotation. Gyros, similar to the one below, can be used to determine orientation. They are found in most autonomous navigation systems. For example, if you want to balance a robot or unmanned aerial vehicles, a gyroscope can be used to measure rotation. Also, from the balanced position and send corrections to a motor.
When the gyro is rotated, a small resonant mass is shifted as the angular velocity changes. This motion is converted into very low current electrical signals. That can be amplified and read by a host microcontroller.
Range and Sensitivity Gyroscope
The measurement range for Hexarotor Gyroscope, or full-scale range, is the maximum angular velocity. That the gyro can read. Ranges of gyroscopes are vary between 250 °/s 500 ° /s 2000 °/s. Digital gyroscopes have 16 bits and it selection of range affects sensitivity. For example, first bit of 16bits of gyroscope is sign bit. Rest 15 bits are represent value section. If one choose 250°/s range, thus 250/2^15=0, 00875 will be minimum step size. Secondly, if we select 2000°/s instead of 200°/s thus 2000/2^15=0,061 would be minimum step size. At the same time, temperature change affects sensitivity.
Sign Bit ①②③④⑤⑥⑦⑧⑨⑩⑪⑫⑬⑮⑯ -> Value Bits
As with any sensor, the values you measure will contain some amount of error or bias. You can see gyro bias by measuring the output when the gyro is still. These errors are sometimes called bias drift or bias instability. The temperature of the sensor greatly affects the bias. To help minimize the source of this error, most gyros have a built in temperature sensor. Thus, you are able to read the temperature of the sensor and correct or any temperature dependent changes. In order to correct for these errors, the gyro must be calibrated. This is usually done by keeping the gyroscope steady and resetting all the reads in your code.
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